Schisandra is the dried and mature fruit of Schisandra of Magnoliaceae, and is commonly called \”Northern Schisandra\”. Schisandra is a commonly used Chinese medicine in clinical practice. It is the main component of the classic prescription Shengmai San and the modern preparation Shengmai injection. It is used to expand blood vessels, protect myocardium and increase coronary blood flow. The 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia contains schisandra There are 100 prescription preparations, which are often used in combination with Rehmannia, Ophiopogon and Poria. In addition, it is also made into health food for improving sleep, immune regulation and auxiliary protection of chemical liver injury.
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The main chemical components of Schisandra are lignans, volatile oils, organic acids, terpenes, flavonoids, polysaccharides and so on. Pharmacological studies have shown that Schisandra has good cardiovascular protective effects, antioxidant and immune activities, and has broad application prospects in cardiovascular disease, lung disease, anti-fatigue and tumor adjuvant therapy. Studies have shown that the most in-depth study of the effective ingredients of Schisandra and widely used clinically is lignans. Schisandra extract contains many kinds of lignans, such as schisandrin A, schisandrin B, schisandrin A, schisandrin B, schisandrin A, schisandrin B, and gomixin A.
The volatile oil contained in Schisandra is complex, most of which are terpenoids. According to literature reports, the volatile oils identified in Schisandra include α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, α-farnesene, α-solanoleene, and dehydroanthene.
There are many organic acids in Schisandra, which play important physiological roles in the human body, including succinic acid (succinic acid), citric acid, quinic acid, protocatechuic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid and fumaric acid, etc. . In addition, the detected acids were succinic acid, 2-hydroxysuccinic acid and tetracosanoic acid, as well as 3 organic acids, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid.
At present, the main terpenoids isolated and identified from Schisandra are β-sitosterol, betulinic acid, glyceryl pentanoic acid, and oleanolic acid. Schisandra contains some flavonoids, including rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-β-D -Xylopyranoside, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, genistein-7-O -β-D-glucopyranoside, catechin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-glucose, quercetin-3-O- Xylose. The polysaccharide content of Schisandra is 85.56%, and its polysaccharide component includes rhamnose, glucose, arabinose, galactose and so on.
Schisandra is warm in nature, sour and sweet in taste, Guixin, Lung, and Kidney Meridians. It has the functions of nourishing the kidney, calming the heart, promoting body fluids and quenching thirst, astringent and astringent. It is widely used in central nervous, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine and other Systems.
The main pharmacological effects of Schisandra extract:
- Heart-strengthening and excitatory respiration. Experiments show that Schisandra has a respiration excitatory effect on rabbits and dogs, which can deepen and speed up the breathing, and can resist the respiration inhibitory effect.
- Hepatoprotective effect. The extract of odorless seeds has obvious protective effect on animal liver cell damage caused by chemical poisons. It can inhibit the release of transaminase and reduce the activity of alanine aminotransferase.
- Promote metabolism, increase the body\’s immune function and the body\’s defense capabilities. Schisandra polysaccharide can also improve the body\’s immunity, increase the body\’s resistance to harmful stimuli, and reduce body damage.
- Anti-oxidation and anti-aging effects. Both schisandrin B and schisandrin have antioxidant effects, which can scavenge free radicals and inhibit the formation of lipid peroxides. Schisandra can reduce serum cholesterol, increase
protein content in brain and liver, and have anti-aging effects.
- It has inhibitory effect on a variety of germs. The alcohol extract of Schisandra has an inhibitory effect on Shigella, Typhoid bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and has an inhibitory effect on intestinal pathogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
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Application of schisandra extract in animal husbandry:
1. Application in layer production
The schisandra alcohol, vitamin C, and vitamin E of the Schisandra chinensis Institute can excite breathing, excite uterine smooth muscle, protect the liver and detoxify, promote liver glycogen decomposition, anti-stress, increase appetite and adrenaline-like effects, can improve metabolic efficiency, promote follicular development and Ovulate and lay eggs.
2.Application in broiler production
First, Schisandra can significantly improve the performance of broiler chickens. Adding Schisandra extract to the diet of broilers can effectively improve the performance of broilers. Compared with feed without Schisandra, the weight of broilers can be increased.
Second, improve the intestinal microbial environment, enhance the body\’s immunity, and have antiviral effects. Adding Schisandra extract to the diet can reduce the number of Escherichia coli in the cecum and facilitate the proliferation of Lactobacillus in the cecum. At the same time, it can effectively prevent broiler chickens from diarrhea, improve the health of broiler chickens, and have the effect of disease prevention and disease resistance.
Third, enhance the antioxidant effect of broilers. Schisandra phenol, the active ingredient of schisandra, has strong antioxidant activity. Its antioxidant performance is stronger than vitamin E, and it can effectively inhibit the production of malondialdehyde caused by free radicals and reduce lipids. Damage to cells caused by peroxides.
3.Application in pig production
Adding Schisandra extract to the piglet’s diet can significantly increase the activity of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in the serum or tissues, and can significantly reduce the content of malondialdehyde in the serum, liver and heart, which is useful for improving piglets. The ability of the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and blood circulation to enhance anti-oxidation plays an important role.
4.Application in aquatic animals
Schisandra affects the water quality of aquaculture water bodies. To a certain extent, it can speed up the metabolism of koi carp, inhibit the metabolic growth of microorganisms, and can significantly reduce the rate of microbial metabolism in water to produce ammonia nitrogen.