NMN, nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinamide mononucleotide, is a naturally occurring bioactive nucleotide. NMN has two irregular forms, α and β; The β isomer is the active form of NMN with a molecular weight of 334.221 g/mol.
With the increase of age, the level of NAD+ in human body tends to decline, so the elderly may have a stronger demand for SIRtuins, PARPs and other NAD+ consumption pathways. In addition, metabolic syndrome represented by obesity and acute injury of nerves, blood vessels, liver and kidney caused by poor living habits in modern people may also lead to NAD+ deficiency and insufficient activity of sirtuins. Therefore, various precursors can be used to supplement NAD+ levels in the body to prevent and mitigate the physiological processes of many age-related or acute diseases.
A 2014 study found that SIRT1, a member of the Sirtuins protein family, is a major player in central time aging, or master clock aging. The insufficient level of NAD+ in the SCN of elderly mice leads to the decrease of SIRT1 activity, which is prone to metabolic syndrome and disturbance of sleep, exercise and feeding behavior. By supplementing NAD+ precursor and increasing SIRT1 activity, it can theoretically improve circadian rhythm of the body, improve sleep and enhance energy.
Under certain experimental conditions, NAD+ precursors can prevent or even reverse neuronal damage and degeneration associated with hearing loss, retinal injury, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and peripheral neuropathy, showing strong and extensive neuronal protection.
Increasing NAD+ levels in the endothelium of aging blood vessels could be a potential therapy for diseases that develop due to reduced blood flow, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, slow wound healing, and liver dysfunction.
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