Glutathione is a non-protein sulfhydryl tripeptide compound formed by glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine through peptide bond condensation. It is an active short peptide with wide usage. It is soluble in water, dilute alcohol, liquid ammonia and dimethyl formamide, but insoluble in ethanol, ether and acetone. The solid of glutathione is relative stable and its aqueous solution can easily be oxidized in the air.
1. Glutathione (GSH) is an amazing antioxidant
GSH is an antioxidant containing sulfydryl, capable of eliminating the radicals influencing human health. Modern medical science considers that radical is one of major reasons of ageing and diseases. The most contented and important GSH plays a major role in eliminating radicals in anti-oxidation system of cells, called “master antioxidant” and “GSH defensive system” by scientists. Besides directly participating in eliminating radicals, GSH also has a generating effect on extraneous antioxidant like vitamin C and E, keeping the active (reduced) state.
Radical is an intermediate species with high chemical activity produced during cellular metabolism, can attack protein, DNA and lipid macromolecule in cell membrane, and damage the physiological function of these macromolecules, making the cell membranes lose their function and shorten the life of cells. It is able to cause the cell membrane gap so as to be invaded by germs and virus which further damage the karyotheca, expose, damage the genetic materials and even cause mutation. Therefore, badly damaged immune cells result in low immunity and diseases. In 1956, Professor Haman firstly proposed the radical theory, found that the life of fisherman work time in strong sunshine is shorter, and further proved that ultraviolet can excite the body to produce radicals through research, while radicals can promote the ageing of physiological cycle and speed up the coming of death.
2. GSH is An Irreplaceable Antidote
Liver is the organ with the richest GSH in human body and known as the most important antidotal organ of species biological compound. GSH is able to combine with and eliminate the heavy metal in body, especially restrain the carcinogen materials. After combining with toxin and resolving outside of the cells, GSH enters bile or is eliminated in urine. As a large warehouse to store GSH, liver would decline the stock of GSH caused by alcoholic hepatitis and virus hepatitis (hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C). Improving the GSH level can recover the liver function and better protect the liver.
Kidney is another organ enriching GSH can eliminate wastes produced in metabolism in urine through selective filtration. Besides, external poisonous substances like heavy metal, drugs, germs and toxins entering the blood can combine with GSH and enter urine through filtration and then be eliminated. Kidney plays an important role in keeping balance of water and dielectric medium and generating blood pressure. If the kidney can’t work normally, the wastes and toxins accumulation in body will influence other system, especially the nervous and circulation systems. Kidney diseases can influence human life.
In addition, alveole mucous contains plenty of GSH. According to research, it is related to the GSH’s antidotal function. GSH can firstly combine with poisonous substances in lung and reduce the damage to health caused by air pollution.
3. GSH is a Crucial Immunpotentiator
Immune system consists of neutrophil, phagocyte, and lymphocyte. Human body has idiopathic immune ability that can resist the external morbid substances, such as germs, virus, and parasites and solve the peculiar physiological changes like the proliferation of cancer cells so as to maintain the normal survival order and health. However, to keep the immune system work normally, it must keep the full activation and differentiation of the immune cells while GSH plays a major role in it. Antiviral Mechanism of GSH: Immune system is regarded as the most supernatural design of antiviral, GSH of which undertakes the following tasks:
- Activate lymphocyte;
- Differentiate and accrete T cell and B cell and endow T cell with toxicity to kill virus and cancer cells. Improving GSH level can strengthen the immune system.
1. Why we need to replenish GSH as we can synthesize it by ourselves?
GSH is mainly produced in liver cells. When we are young, we can maintain normal demands. However, with age, our synthesizing ability begins to decline and become short of supply. In addition, under some conditions like over consumption of alcohol, smoke, long-term in polluted environment, touch and intake toxicant, long-term or large amount of taking medicine, accepting chemotherapy and radiotherapy can result in GSH consumption speed more than that of synthesizing. To resist radicals and prevent the damage, we need to replenish extra GSH. Besides, ageing, infection, poisoning, oxidative stress, electrophilic compound can reduce GSH processivity and lower content. Due to the endogenous GSH reduction in pathological state, it is necessary to replenish exogenous GSH. Exogenous GSH supplement can prevent, lighten and stop cell damage and change pathology and physiology progress. GSH was early applied in treatment to poisoning patients, and then in protecting liver and kidney due to the anti-oxidation effect. Recently, according to large amount of clinical basic experimental studies, GSH also has such effects as anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anti-epileptic, and vessel protection. Therefore, GSH has vast potential for future application.
GSH supplement can improve GSH level in following conditions: adiposity, NIDD, capillary diseases, nephropathy, Parkinson disease, pulmonary disease, AIDS and other diseases, smoke, over consumption of alcohol, large amount of prescription medicine and OTC, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, etc.
2. Proper Dosage of GSH
It is good to intake 100-150 mg GSH per day through scientific evidence. Therefore, for the healthy, it is ideal to intake 100 mg GSH every day. For the sub-healthy and unhealthy with low GSH content, it is suggested to negotiate with healthcare doctor to ascertain the proper dosage.
3. Safety for Replenishing GSH
Due to GSH is an existing naturally-occurring substance in body, it is safe in theory. Through a large number of human test meal experiment, it is safe for the participators take 1,000mg per day or ten times more than the recommended dosage.
4. Oral Bioavailability of GSH
GSH in combination of amino acid composition (Glu, Cys, and glycine) in specific way can dependently generate and degrade instead of depending on human protein system. The early research didn’t find the remarkable growth of plasma level after replenishing GSH and considered that GSH had no oral bioavailability. However, most researches in the past two decades have proved that plasma level of GSH can’t show the levels in other tissues and GSH has oral bioavailability. Animal models show that GSH can be preferentially conveyed to the specific parts with high demands, such as lung and intestines.
There are a large number of documents about GSH clinical application, which indicates the curative effects in following fields:
- GSH’s effect on hepatic diseases: it can treat virus hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, NAFLD, hepatocirrhosis, and DILI, etc.
- Renal diseases;
- Protective action to drug-included renal and hepatitis
- Acute pancreatitis systemic inflammatory response syndrome;
- Cure diabetes mellitus and DPN;
- Adjuvant drug in antineoplaston;
- GSH cures age-related eye diseases;
- GSH’s protection to intestinal trace;
- GSH cures anaphylactoid purpura;
- Treatment to neonatal HIE;
- Sharing with anticancer drugs: recently, it arouses increasing concern from clinical experts to restrain the side effects of anticancer drugs and strengthen curative effect and host resistance in combination of anticancer drugs;
- Detoxication: GSH has detoxication to intoxication of medicine, food, heavy metal and carbon monoxide;
- Anti-ageing ;
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